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Alan Machin: Tourism As Education
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... and reading a city that has had many rebuilders
Making Sense of The Travel Learning Experience- 1
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Some basic theories
Back to Basics: Presentation given at the Cuba EduTourism Conference
The CETA Conference in Havana, Cuba, 8/9 November 2010
About the author
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At the heart of the tourist experience
Learning through Landscapes
Exploring Oxfordshire (and a bit of Gloucestershire!)
The Environment As Data: Building New Theories For Tourism
How tourists relate to places
Sail Gives Way to Steam
A return visit discovers just how much has been achieved in this iconic restoration
Richard III and the Battle of Bosworth Reenactment
Visits to Leicester and the battlefield event, 2013
Along The Way
Recollections and Reflections of 60+ Years' Learning about the World and its Ways
On the Edge of the New World
Shaping New England
Exploring Holderness in East Yorkshire; October 2012
Past Historic
Graf Zepplin, Spain 1968, OS History, Much Wenlock Olympics, Chatham Dockyard, Hawes Tourism, Colonial Williamsburg,
A Summer of Travelling / Matthew Starr
Three months' backpacking in Africa, Asia and Australia
East Anglia
The Broads, Pensthorpe natural history, Radar Museum, Caister Lifeboat Service and more!
A Richer Earth
Discoveries in the landscape and attractions of Shropshire
Blog Index Page
Blog pages from 2009 listed
From Strip Map to Sat Nav
'Finding the way' aids to exploration
Showcasing the World
How the Tourist Microcosm took centre stage
Doing A Dissertation
Notes to help students preparing their proposals
The Japanese Tsunami Destruction at First Hand
Sarah and Tom Wadsworth saw for themselves
Showcases: Examples
The range and variety of tourism's focal points examined
Jigsaw: Frameworks of Knowledge
The tourist jigsaw puzzle of - knowledge
Books and other works useful in studying tourism as education
Tourism's Educational Origins: Part 2
The development of tourism as education, 1845 -
Tourism's Educational Origins: Part 1
Tourism's educational origins and management
Impressions of Tourism in Cuba
Thoughts on having seen some of the country myself
Captain James Cook: North Yorkshire Days
Tracing the early life of Britain's greatest maritime explorer
Hunting the Hound of the Baskervilles
Tracking down places that inspired the famous detective story and moulded Dartmoor's image
Exploring the Idea of Dark Tourism
What is it? Is it a useful idea?
Talking to Tourists
Visitor interpretation - guide books, visitor centres and other media
Shades of Light and Dark in the Garden of England
An exploration in East Sussex and Kent, June/July 2010
Hunting the Gladiator and the Gecko
A thirteen-year search for a wartime adventure
Steam Up For A Famous Film's Birthday Party
The Railway Children weekend on the Worth Valley line raises questions about heritage presentations
Anne-Marie Rhodes: Making a Difference in South East Asia
Leeds Met graduate of '07 describes her activities
Discoveries in Northumberland, April 2010
Alnwick Gardens; Winter's Gibbet; Holy Island, Cragside, Wallington Hall
Discoveries in the Midlands, March 2010
Bletchley Park National Codes and Cipher Centre; and the Rollright Stones
Alan Machin's Blog - April 2010
The development of tourism as education continued
Jigsaw Puzzle!
The Adventure of the Timely Tourist
Leaders Into The Field
People who inspired everyone to explore
Alan Machin's blogs - February and March 2010
Postings on the history tourism as education - redirection
Alan Machin's Blog - January 2010
Tourist photography and souvenirs
Earlier front-page blog postings - January 2010 onwards
Archived after being on the Home Page
News from higher education and - beyond
The Development of Educational Tourism
Key dates in the development of educational tourism
Alan Machin's Blog - December 2009
Christmas Quiz and other postings
Analysing Heritage Tourism
Ideas and perspectives on a hugely important sector
Alan Machin's Blog - November 2009
Visitors' Views of Stonehenge, West Sussex - and other Postings
Are Universities Losing Their Way?
Reflections having retired
Teaching Tourism At Leeds Met
Remembering the Best
Alan Machin's Blog - October 2009
Thoughts about university life and discovery by travel
Alan Machin's Blog - September 2009
Further postings about a trip last month to the USA, and about higher education
Alan Machin's Blog - August 2009
Postings about a trip this month to the USA
Alan Machin's Blog - July 2009
The Story So Far reaches the summer
Alan Machin's Blog - June 2009
The Story So Far looks back on seventeen years at Leeds Met
Alan Machin's Blog - May 2009
Another month of The Story So Far
Alan Machin's blog - April 2009
Yet more of the Story So Far
Alan Machin's blog - March 2009
More of The Story So Far
Alan Machin's Blog - February 2009
The Story So Far - pioneers, people and places
Alan Machin's Blog: January 2009
The Story So Far .... first postings of '09
Alan Machin's Blog: December 2008
The Story So Far .... latest postings
Alan Machin's Blog - November '08
The Story So Far.... continued
Alan Machin's Blog: October 2008
The Story So Far....
No Place Like Rome
The eternal city with the eternal tourists
Charleston, South Carolina
A photo essay about a fine historic city
Idealog - December 2007
Ideas, notes and comments
Idealog - November 2007
Ideas, notes and comments
The Educational Origins of Tourism
Discussion paper
Idealog - October 2007
Coton Military Cemetery; Education and Tourism; Chatham Maritime; Dickens World; Quiz Answers; Tourist Guides; Mediation In Tourism
Idealog - September 2007
Plane Paradox;Tour Guiding; Where in the World?; Do Tourism Students Know Where They Are?; Leeds Met's Wow!; Sea Harrier; Scarborough and Tourism As Education; Doing A Dissertation; Types of Tourist; A Media Lens; Cost of Travelling Alone; Risk of Bias?
Idealog - August 2007
A People Industry; Heritage Interpretation; Lud's Church; Tourists Go Home!; Stone Gappe YHA; Insight Guides; Eyewitness Guides; Bramhope Tunnel; Elizabethan Progress; Information Quality Matrix
Idealog - July 2007
Hidden Heroes, Health Tourism, Holme Fen Posts; Harrogate (again); Whitby Abbey; Dramatic Interpretation; Harrogate Interpretation, Attractions and Royal Hall
Idealog - June 2007
Christian Pilgrimage; Cincinnati Museums Centre; The Coming of the Guide Book; Talking to Tourists - Media, Stages of the Visit, The Service Journey; Tourism's Missing Link; The Final Call; SATuration level; Halifax's Edwardian Window on the World
Idealog - May 2007
Martin and Osa Johnson, Wensleydale Creamery, Malham Tarn, Thomas Cook, Northern Ireland's Tourism Rebuild, Jamestown Festival Park, Cite des Sciences
Idealog - April 2007
The Promenade Plantee, The Jardin des Plantes, Environmental Data, Victorian Beauty Spot Rediscovered, Jamestown, The Anglers' Country Park, Children's Museums, Fairburn Ings
Idealog - March 2007
A Sense of the Past- The 'Amsterdam', The Outdoor Classroom, Film-Induced Tourism, Making Tracks for the Coast and Country, Pictures, Context and Meaning, Classics-on-Sea, Hi Hi Everyone!, Dark Side of the Dream, Holodyne - The Action Cycle
Idealog - February 2007
Don't Go There!, Space Tourism, The Crystal Cathedral, New Books on Tourism, Dark Tourism - Undercliffe Cemetery, Showcase - The Louvre, A Class Act, First Impressions Count, Postal Pleasures, Canaletto in Venice, Serpent Mound, Capsule Culture etc
Idealog - January 2007
Capsule Culture,Seaside Style, Poble Espanyol, Mallorca, Edgar Dale, Children's Holiday Homes, Representations of Reality, Outdoor Education in Germany, Baedeker Guides, Geography Textbooks, Environmental Data Theory etc
Idealog - December 2006
Writers on Landscape, Story Books, The Deep, Flour Power and the Archers,Showcases: Grand Tour, Halifax Piece Hall, Books of Concern about Tourism, Tourist Traces, Tourist Typologies, The Growth of Educational Tourism, The Field Studies Council, etc
Idealog - November 2006
A blog of ideas, comments and notes
Travel To Understand: Belfast
Telling the stories of troubled times
World Quiz 2010
Geography with a tourism angle
The Monterey Bay Aquarium
An outstanding educational facility in California
Chicago: Tourism Re-Imaging
A closer view of an iconic city
Colonial Williamsburg
A Virginia history showcase
A Social Club Outing By Train, 1935
How to do Scotland in 30 hours flat
Going Dutch
Presenting the past in the Netherlands
Keukenhof: Business is Blooming
Using tourism to promote an industry
A View of Italy for the City
Trentham Gardens Revived
A Case Study in Heritage Management
A curious tale of misleading publicity
Old Rice Farm
The story of the house in the 'holler'
Perfection in Paradise: The Eden Project
New page being added: The Eden Project's design for success
Escaping From Slavery: Facing Our Past
The US National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
Prague Tourist Shows
Outstanding showcase attractions in the city
Retracing the Steps: Tourism as Education
ATLAS Conference paper given in Finland, 2000
Tourism and Historic Towns: The Cultural Key
A background paper for a Council of Europe Conference
The Social Helix
Visitor Interpretation as a Tool for Social Development, 1989
Malta Residential, 14-21 Feb 2006 - Page 1
Reports and Pictures
Malta Residential, 14-21 Feb 2006 - Page 2
Photos and reports of Friday 17 Feb onwards
Malta Residential, 14-21 February 2006 - Page 3
Reports and pictures from Sunday, 19 February onwards
Tourism Alumni Reunion, 8 March 2003
Leeds tourism students reunion 2003
World Geography Quiz 1
A test of your knowledge
The Adventure of the Timely Tourist
The answers
Tall Ships Race 2010 Converged on Hartlepool
A major event-based boost for tourism in the town
Plymouth: From the Tamar to the Sea
Starting point for explorations round the globe
Plimoth Plantation
A reconstruction of the Mayflower settlers' village of the 1620s on the north east coast of North America
World Geography Quiz 2010 - Answers
Geography with a tourism angle
World Geography Quiz - Answers
Christmas Quiz 2009 - Answers
A day in the city including the Botanic Garden
Tourist Showcases
Examples from around the world

A Social Club Outing By Train, 1935

In early 1985 I began preparatory research for a tourism promotion based on Victorian Calderdale. This was to follow up the successful 1984 promotion based on the eighteenth century life in the area. However, with the coming of the Calderdale Inheritance Project and my move to join its team, the idea was shelved. The time was not wasted as much good material came out of the research, including some to do with the early twentieth century. Prominent among this was a contact with a very elderly, but very lively lady named Mrs Florence Waite, who had worked in the 1930s at Crossley Carpets in Halifax.

Some time later I and a production crew from Leeds Metropolitan University visited Mrs Waite at her Halifax home and videotaped a long interview with her in which she told us her life story. This is mentioned on another page of this web site, and it also formed part of a teaching video project called "Tourism and the Industrial Community" which was produced by the University in 1997.

This page tells in brief the story of an excursion that Mrs Waite made in September, 1935 to Scotland. It uses some of her exact words and pictures from the video.

It was 'officially' a day's excursion to Scotland, the Forth Bridge, Glasgow and the Isle of Bute on 7 September 1935. How could it all be done in one day?

Crossley outing to Scotland brochure - 7 Sept 35

Mrs Waite had been born near Rotherham. On leaving school one Friday aged 14 she was sent to live with her sister in West Vale near Halifax, and on the Monday started work in a textile mill. She never moved back to the South Riding.

In due course she married, her husband working as a conductor on the local tram system. She went to work at Crossley Carpets at Dean Clough in Halifax, in the Chenille Department, where the hours were long and the wages relatively low. Her sister also worked in the mill. Then in the 1930s her husband lost his job and spent some time out of work.

From the late 'twenties to the start of the second world war a 'welfare society' at Crossleys organised excursions each year to a number of destinations such as Margate, Bournemouth and the Isle of Man. In 1935 it was to be to Scotland. Money was collected each week from those who booked to go, and a special train booked. Mr Waite, out of work, could not afford it, so Mrs Waite went with her sister. Five hundred people boarded the train, each having been given a small booklet with full details of the schedule and places being visited.

The journey started close to midnight on Friday, 6 September.

Crossley Carpet Mills montage

At that time, well before the Clean Air Act of 1954 which put an end to pollution by coal burning factories and houses, Halifax was a dirty, smoke-laden town. Hundreds of household chimneys and dozens of factory chimneys poured out black, polluting fumes. It was said that Bank Holidays could be seen, because the air was clearer as the mills were closed for the day and many houses left empty. Halifax, like many another industrial town, was a place to be escaped from on these days. From the middle of the nineteenth century, horse-drawn wagons and trains had taken people a few miles out into the countryside nearby, or much further to some other, more attractive city. Halifax certainly was not a tourist destination.

Margate, Bournemouth, and Edinburgh were, and so were the islands of the Clyde such as Rothesay.

Florence Waite - reminiscence

The train left from Halifax North Bridge Station, which has been long gone and now is occupied by a Sainsbury's store. It took the old route through tunnels to Queensbury before making its way through the night up the east coast. Mrs Waite recalled that everyone was so excited, there was very little time for sleeping.

Florence Waite reminiscence

Edinburgh postcard

From Edinburgh's Waverley Station they were taken round the city, seeing the Castle, Royal Mile and Holyrood House from the coaches. Then the cavalcade set off for Queensferry and the Forth Bridge, arriving about 9 o'clock in the morning. They had 'done' Edinburgh - no time for entering buildings or buying souvenirs - and breakfast that Saturday morning had been served on the train around 4:30am. They saw the bridge and the Firth of Forth and Mrs Waite's sister took one or two photos on a box camera.

Florence Waite reminiscences
Wemyss Bay station and ferry terminal

For many years, Glaswegians have "gone doon the watter" from their city to the resorts along the Clyde. Many took the train to Wemyss Bay where an attractive station was linked by a curving, sloping, covered walkway to a ferry terminal (above). Boats crossed over to Rothesay on the Isle of Bute. The Victorians holidayed there so hotels and guests houses sprang up and bathing machines in which the modest visitor could change into suitable swimware were found on the beach. Postcards showed the busy pier and promenade (below). The good millworking folk of Halifax - all five hundred of them - would have been a lively, noisy invasion, but soon absorbed into shops or onto the little beach or boat trips - such as the one Mrs Waite and her sister missed.

Rothesay postcard

Florence Waite reminiscence

The visit to Glasgow was only for the evening meal (traditionally called 'tea' in the north, the midday 'dinner' having been taken on the train on the way to Wemyss Bay) followed by time for a drink in a pub. Glasgow wasn't considered a tourist attraction for this party, at least.

Florence Waite reminiscences

Mrs Waite also said in the interview video that she hadn't known what to order in the pub, so asked for the same as the man who was standing next to her - a pint of beer.

Then they caught the train back home, travelling down the west coast this time. As it was overnight Mrs Waite had no memory of the route taken.

Florence Waite Remininscences

The visit was one of Mrs Waite's strongest memories of the 1930s. It wasn't a day excursion, which might have been fifteen hours including travelling, but twice that - around thirty hours, with something happening all the time. They slept little on either of the two nights they were travelling. Only around five hours, it seems, were spent really sightseeing, plus the time spent eating and drinking in Glasgow. Between seventeen and eighteen hours appear to have been spent travelling. Most of the workers at John Crossley and Company would have made only this one trip away during the difficult times of the 'thirties, a time of economic depression. After the war, with Mr Waite working for the Post Office, times were better and more excursions were made.

What thrilled Mrs Waite was that during her late years, visitors were coming to her own town because they found it special, interesting, historic and even scenic because of the Pennine setting of the Calder Valley. She worked at Crossleys: by the late 1980s it had become a Business Park with nationally-recognised redevelopment activities, after Crossleys closed in 1982. In 1900 the carpet company had 5,000 workers: at the time of closure, a few hundred. By 1990 there were something like 2,000 people working in the former mills, in services, small-scale manufacturing, plus arts and theatre groups. A new Calderdale Industrial Museum adjacent to the Halifax Piece Hall demonstrated textile processes such as Mrs Waite had operated in the 'thirties.

She had never thought of her town special in any way except as being her home. Her life had not, perhaps, been special to many people apart from her family: now she saw that it was part of the story of the town and that hundreds, if not thousands, of visitors were interested in it. It meant that she had to revise her whole view of her town and her own part in it.

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